In , the Massachusetts Supreme Court legalized gay marriage. As an indirect consequence, same-sex marriage was soon legalized by U. In other words, partnerships involving sexual intimacy should have at least a notional potential for procreation. Hide Caption 8 of 33 Photos: Hide Caption 3 of 33 Photos: This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships.
In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples. As countries began to legalize same-sex partnerships, public opinion , particularly in Europe, began to shift in favour of full marriage rights for same-sex unions. Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. In , several states started the year by striking down their same-sex marriage bans. In Uruguay became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex civil unions nationwide; the legislation became effective the following year. Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it. Joshua Gunter, right, and Bryan Shields attend a Las Vegas rally to celebrate an appeals court ruling that overturned Nevada's same-sex marriage ban on October 7, A year later, California led the way by becoming the first state in the U. In other countries, particularly those with federal political systems and strong judiciaries, such as Canada, South Africa, and the United States, the courts played a vital role. In the Netherlands revised its same-sex partnership law and the following year became the first country to offer marriage to same-sex couples; several other European countries subsequently legalized gay marriage. Bermuda thus became the first country to repeal same-sex marriage. In , California turned another corner—its Supreme Court struck its law and started to allow same sex marriage. Donna Nesselbush, right, embraces a supporter after the Marriage Equality Act was signed into law at the statehouse in Providence on May 2, In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue. Hide Caption 8 of 33 Photos: In such societies, the possibility of arrest or institutionalization further reinforced taboos on same-sex intimacy and discussions thereof, typically driving such activities underground. Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another. A year later, California tried to pass a same-sex marriage bill but the governor vetoed it; and the same thing again in As the electorate in Maine simultaneously reversed its previous decision, the three states became the first in the country to approve same-sex marriage at the ballot box. Supreme Court ruling legalizing such nuptials nationwide, Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore directed probate judges in his state to enforce the ban on same-sex marriage. In Canada became the first country outside Europe to pass legislation legalizing same-sex marriage. The date marked the first day that all of Illinois' counties could begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. At the state Capitol in St. Supreme Court cleared the way for same-sex marriage in Utah when it declined to hear the state's appeal of a lower court ruling. Hide Caption 7 of 33 Photos:
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HISTORY: Marriage Equality A Constitutional Right In America
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